A Sermon against Swearing and Perjury.
The second part of the Sermon of
Almighty GOD, to the intent his most holy Name should be had in honour,
and evermore be magnified of the people, commandeth that no man should take
his Name vainly in his mouth, threatening punishment unto him that irreverently
abuseth it by swearing, forswearing, and
blasphemy. To the intent therefore that this commandment may be the better
known and kept, it shall bee declared unto you, both how it is lawful for
Christian people to swear, and also what peril and danger it is vainly to
swear, or to be forsworn.
How and in what causes
it is lawful to swear.
First, when Judges require others of the people for declaration or opening
of the truth, or for execution of justice, this manner of swearing is lawful.
Also when men make faithful promises with calling to witness of the Name
of GOD, to keep covenants, honest promises, statutes, laws and good customs,
as Christian Princes do in their conclusions of peace, for conservation of
common wealth, and private persons promise their fidelity in Matrimony, or
one to another in honesty and true friendship: and all men when they do swear
to keep common laws, and local statutes, and good customs, for due order
to be had and continued among men, when Subjects do swear to be true and
faithful to their King and Sovereign Lord, and when Judges, Magistrates,
and Officers swear truly to execute their Offices, and when a man would affirm
the truth to the setting forth of Gods glory (for the salvation of the people)
in open preaching of the Gospel, or in giving of good counsel privately for
their souls health: all these manner of swearing, for causes necessary and
honest, be lawful. But when men do swear of custom, in reasoning, buying
and selling, or other daily communications (as many be common and great swearers)
such kind of swearing is ungodly, unlawful, and forbidden by the commandment
of GOD. For such swearing is nothing else, but taking of GODS holy name in
vain. And here is to be noted, that lawful swearing is not forbidden, but
commanded by Almighty GOD. For we have examples of Christ, and godly men,
in holy Scripture, that did swear themselves, and required others of others
likewise. And GOD’S Commandment is, Thou shalt dread thy Lord GOD,
and shalt swear by his Name. (Deut 6) And Almighty GOD by his Prophet David
saith, “All men shall be praised that swear by him.” (Psalm 63)
Thus did our Saviour Christ swear divers times, saying, “Verily, verily”.
(John 3) And St. Paul sweareth thus, “I call GOD to witness”.
(2 Cor 1) And Abraham (waxing old) required an oath of his servant, that
he should procure a wife for his son Isaac, which should come of his own
kindred: and the servant did swear that he would perform his master’s
will. (Gen 24) Abraham also being required, did swear unto Abimelech the
king of Geraris, that he should not hurt him, nor his posterity, and likewise
did Abimelech swear unto Abraham. (Gen 21) And David did swear to be and
continue a faithful friend to Jonathan, and Jonathan did swear to become
a faithful friend unto David.
Also God once commanded, that if a thing were laid to pledge to any man,
or left with him to keep, if the same thing were stolen, or lost, that the
keeper thereof should be sworn before Judges, that he did not convey it away,
nor used any deceit in causing the same to be conveyed away, by his consent
or knowledge. And Saint Paul saith, that in all matters of controversy between
two persons, whereas one saith, Yea, and the other, Nay, so as no due proof
can be had of the truth, the end of every such controversy must be an oath
ministered by a Judge. (Heb 6) And moreover GOD by the Prophet Jeremiah saith, “Thou
shalt swear, The Lord liveth, in truth, in judgement, in righteousness.” (Jer
4) So that whosoever sweareth when he is required of a Judge, let him be
sure in his conscience that his oath have three conditions, and he shall
never need to be afraid of perjury.
What condition an oath
ought to have.
First, he that sweareth, may swear truly, that is, he must (setting a part
all favour and affection to the parties) have the truth only before his eyes,
and for love thereof, say and speak that which he knoweth to be truth, and
no further. The second is, he that taketh an oath, must do it with judgement,
not rashly and unadvisedly, but soberly, considering what an oath is. The
third is, he that Sweareth, must swear in righteousness: that is, for the
very zeal and love which he beareth to the defence of innocency, to the maintenance
of the truth, and of the righteousness of the matter or cause: all profit,
disprofit, all love and favour unto the person for friendship or kindred
laid apart. Thus an oath (if it have with it these three conditions) is a
part of GODS glory, which we are bound by his commandments to give unto him.
Why we be willed in scripture
to swear by the Name of God.
For he willeth that we shall swear only by his name, not that he hath pleasure
in oaths, but like as he commanded the Jews to offer sacrifices unto him,
not for any delight that he had in them, but to keep the Jews from committing
of idolatry: so he commanding us to swear by his holy name, doeth not teach
us that he delighteth in swearing, but he thereby forbiddeth all men to give
his glory to any creature in heaven, earth, or water. (Isa 42) Hitherto you
see, that oaths lawful are commanded of GOD (Ps 15), used of Patriarchs and
Prophets, of Christ himself, and of his Apostle Paul. Therefore Christian
people must think lawful oaths, both godly and necessary.
Commodities had by lawful oaths made and observed.
For by lawful promise and covenants confirmed by oaths, Princes and their
Countries are confirmed in common tranquillity & peace. By holy promises
with calling the name of GOD to witness, we be made lively members of Christ,
when wee profess his Religion receiving the Sacrament of Baptism. By like
holy promise the Sacrament of Matrimony knitteth man and wife in perpetual
love, that they desire not to be separated for any displeasure or adversity
that shall after happen. By lawful oaths, which Kings, Princes, Judges, and
Magistrates doe swear, common laws are kept inviolate, Justice is indifferently
ministered, harmless persons, fatherless children, widows, and poor men,
are defended from murderers, oppressors, and thieves, that they suffer no
wrong, nor take any harm. By lawful oaths, mutual society, amity, and good
order is kept continually in all commonalties, as Boroughs, Cities, Towns,
and Villages. And by lawful oaths, malefactors are searched out, wrong doers
are punished, and they which sustain wrong, are restored to their right.
Therefore lawful swearing cannot be evil, which bringeth unto us so many
godly, good, and necessary commodities.
Vain swearing is forbidden.
Wherefore when Christ so earnestly forbad swearing, it may not be understood,
as though he did forbid all manner of oaths: but he forbiddeth all vain swearing
and forswearing both by GOD, and by his creatures, as the common use of swearing
in buying, selling, and in our daily communication, to the intent every Christian
man’s word should be as well regarded in such matters, as if he should
confirm his communication with an oath. For every Christian man’s word
(saith St. Jerome) should be so true, that it should be regarded as an oath.
And Chrysostom witnessing the same, saith, It is not convenient to swear:
for what needeth us to swear, when it is not lawful for one of us to make
a lie unto another?
Peradventure some will say, I am compelled to swear, for else men that do
commune with me, or do buy and sell with me will not believe me.
To this, answered St. Chrysostom, that he that thus saith, showeth himself
to be an unjust and a deceitful person. For if he were a trusty man, and
his deeds taken to agree with his words, he should not need to swear at all.
For he that useth truth and plainness in his bargaining and communication,
he shall have no need by such vain swearing, to bring himself in credence
with his neighbours, nor his neighbours will not mistrust his sayings. And
if his credence be so much lost indeed, that he thinketh no man will believe
him without he swear, then he may well think his credence is clean gone.
For truth it is (as Theophylactus writeth) that no man is less trusted, then
he that useth much to swear. And Almighty GOD by the Wise man saith, That
man which sweareth much shall be full of sinne, and the scourge of GOD shall
not depart from his house. (Sirach 23.9-10)
But here some men will say, for excusing of their many oaths in their daily
talk: Why should I not swear, when I swear truly? To such men it may be
said, that though they swear truly, yet in swearing often unadvisedly,
for trifles, without necessity, and when they should not swear, they be
not without fault, but doe take GODS most holy name in vain. Much more
ungodly and unwise men are they, that abuse
GODS most holy name, not only in buying and selling of small things daily
in all places, but also in eating, drinking, playing, communing and reasoning.
As if none of these things might be done, except in doing of them, the
most holy name of GOD bee commonly used and abused, vainly and irreverently
talked of, sworn by, and forsworn, to the breaking of GODS commandment,
and procurement of his indignation
The second part of the Sermon of Swearing.
You have been taught in the first part of this Sermon against swearing and
perjury, what great danger it is to use the name of GOD in vain. And that
all kind of swearing is not unlawful, neither against GODS commandment, and
that there be three things required in a lawful oath. First, that it bee
made for the maintenance of the truth. Secondly, that it bee made with judgement,
not rashly and unadvisedly. Thirdly, for the zeal and love of Justice. Ye
heard also what commodities commeth of lawful oaths, and what danger commeth
of rash and unlawful oaths. Now as concerning the rest of the same matter,
you shall understand, that as well they use the name of GOD in vain, that
by an oath make unlawful promises of good and honest things, and perform
them not: as they which doe promise evil and unlawful things, and doe perform
the same. Of
Lawful oaths and promises would be better regarded.
Of such men that regard not their godly promises bound by an oath, but wittingly
and wilfully breaketh them, we do read in holy Scripture two notable punishments.
First, Joshua and the people of Israel made a league and faithful promise
of perpetual amity and friendship with the Gibeonites: (Josh 9): not withstanding
afterward in the days of wicked Saul, many of these Gibeonites were murdered,
contrary to the said faithful promise made. Wherewith Almighty GOD was sore
displeased that he sent an universal hunger upon the whole country, which
continued by the space of three years. And GOD would not with draw his punishment,
until the said offence was revenged by the death of seven sons, or next kinsmen
of king Saul. And whereas Zedekiah king of Jerusalem, had promised fidelity
to the king of Chaldea, afterward when Zedechiah contrary to his oath and
allegiance, did rebel against King Nebuchadnezzar: this heathen king by GODS
permission and sufferance, invading the land of Jewry, and besieging the
city of Jerusalem, compelled the said king Zedechiah to flee, and in fleeing,
took him prisoner, slew his sons before his face, and put out both his eyes:
and binding him with chains, led him prisoner miserably into Babylon. (2
Unlawful oaths and promises are not to be kept.
Thus doeth GOD show plainly how much he abhorreth breakers of honest promises
bound by an oath made in his Name. And of them that make wicked promises
by an oath, and will perform the same, we have example in the Scriptures,
chiefly of Herod, of the wicked Jews, and of Jephtha. Herod promised by an
oath unto the Damsel which danced before him, to give unto her whatsoever
she would ask: when she was instructed before of her wicked mother to ask
the head of Saint John Baptist, Herod as he took a wicked oath, so he more
wickedly performed the same, and cruelly slew the most holy Prophet. (Mtt14)
Likewise did the malicious Jews make an oath, cursing themselves if they
did either eat or drink, until they had slain Saint Paul. (Acts 23) And Jephta
when GOD had given to him victory of the children of Ammon, promised (of
a foolish devotion) unto GOD, to offer for a sacrifice unto him, that person
which of his own house should first meet with him after his return home.
By force of which fond and unadvised oath, he did slay his own and only daughter,
which came out of his house with mirth and joy to welcome him home. (Judges
11) Thus the promise which he made (most foolishly) to GOD, against GODS
everlasting will, and the law of nature, most cruelly he performed, so committing
against GOD a double offence. Therefore, whosoever maketh any promise, binding
himself thereunto by an oath: let him foresee that the thing which he promiseth,
be good, and honest, and not against the commandment of GOD, and that it
be in his own power to perform it justly. And such good promises must all
men keep evermore assuredly. But if a man at any time shall, either of ignorance,
or of malice, promise and swear to do any thing which is either against the
law of Almighty GOD, or not in his power to perform: let him take it for
an unlawful and ungodly oath.
Now something to speak of perjury, to the intent you should know how great
and grievous an offence against GOD this wilful perjury is, I will show you
what it is to take an oath before a Judge upon a book.
An oath before a Judge.
First, when they laying their hands upon the Gospel book, do swear truly
to enquire, and to make a true presentment of things wherewith they be charged,
and not to let from saying the truth, and doing truly, for favour, love,
dread, or malice of any person, as GOD may help them, and the holy contents
of that book: They must consider, that in that book is contained GODS everlasting
truth, his most holy and eternal word, whereby we have forgiveness of our
sins and be made inheritors of heaven, to live for ever with GODS Angels
and Saints, in joy and gladness. In the Gospel book is contained also GODS
terrible threats to obstinate sinners, that will not amend their lives, nor
believe the truth of GOD his holy word, and the everlasting pain prepared
in hell for Idolaters, hypocrites, for false and vain swearers, for perjured
men, for false witness bearers, for false condemners of innocent and guiltless
men, and for them which for favour, hide the cries of evil doers, that they
should not bee punished. So that whosoever wilfully forswear themselves upon
Christ’s holy Evangel, they utterly forsake GODS mercy, goodness, and
truth, the merits of our Saviour Christ’s nativity, life, passion,
death, resurrection and ascension, they refuse the forgiveness of sins, promised
to all penitent sinners, the joys of heaven, the company with Angels and
Saints for ever. All which benefits and comforts are promised unto true Christian
persons in the Gospel. And they, so being forsworn upon the Gospel, doe betake
themselves to the Devils service, the master of all lies, falsehood, deceit,
and perjury, provoking the great indignation and curse of GOD against them
in this life, and the terrible wrath and judgement of our Saviour Christ,
at the great day of the last judgement, when he shall justly judge both the
quick and the dead, according to their works. For whosoever forsaketh the
truth, for love of displeasure of any man, or for lucre and profit to himself,
doeth for sake Christ, and with Iudas betray him.
Though perjury do escape here unspied and unpunished, it shall not do so
And although such perjured men’s falsehood bee now kept secret, yet
it shall bee opened at the last day, when the secrets of all men’s
hearts shall bee manifest to all the world. And then the truth shall appear,
and accuse them: and their own conscience, with all the blessed company of
Heaven, shall bear witness truly against them. And Christ the righteous Judge
shall then justly condemn them to everlasting shame and death. This sin of
perjury, Almighty GOD by the Prophet Malachi doeth threaten to punish sore,
saying unto the Jews, I will come to you in judgement, and I will bee a swift
witness and a sharp Judge upon sorcerers, adulterers, and perjured persons.
(Mal 3) Which thing to the Prophet Zechariah GOD declareth in a vision, wherein
the Prophet saw a book fleeing, which was twenty cubits long, and ten cubits
broad, GOD saying then unto him, this is the curse that shall go forth upon
the face of the earth, for falsehood, false swearing, and perjury. And this
curse shall enter into the house of the false man and into the house of the
perjured man, and it shall remain in the midst of his house, consume him,
and the timber and stones of his house. Thus you see how much GOD doth hate
perjury, and what punishment GOD hath prepared for false swearers, and perjured
persons. (Zech 5)
Thus you have heard, how and in what causes it is lawful for a Christian
man to swear: ye have heard what properties and conditions a lawful oath
must have, and also how such lawful oaths are both godly and necessary to
be observed: ye have heard, that it is not lawful to swear vainly, (that
is) other ways then in such causes, and after such sort as is declared. And
finally, ye have heard how damnable a thing it is, either to forswear ourselves,
or to keep an unlawful, and an unadvised oath. Wherefore let us earnestly
call for grace, that all vain swearing and perjury set apart, we may only
use such oaths as be lawful and godly, and that we may truly without all
fraud keep the same, according to GODS will and pleasure. To whom with the
Son, and the holy Ghost, be all honour and glory. AMEN.